Prof. Amulya Kumar N Reddy
Technology - Science, Technology and Society
ASTRA -- PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE: An analytical insight
about ASTRA, undertaken by Amulya after 25 years of its
functioning. Contains the SWOT analyses done in 1974, 1989 and currently
in 2000. Concludes with some ideas, on the way forward.
Operational criteria for joint implementation -- a developing
country perspective; This paper serves as the basis of the discussant's
remarks on the paper OPERATIONAL CRITERIA FOR JOINT IMPLEMENTATION of
Tom Jones, presented at the International Conference on the Economics of
Climate Change, Paris, June 14-16, 1993, organized by OECD and IEA. This
comment considers the issue of joint implementation from the perspective
of developing countries. However,
these countries vary widely, and in particular, the newly
industrializing countries (NICs) differ greatly from the other
developing countries. Hence,
this comment concentrates on the perspective of these non-NIC developing
Model For The Commercialization Of Improved Technologies, Process
model for the commercialization of improved technologies in rural areas;
K. N. Krishnaswamy and Amulya, Draft November 1990.
Scientists in the developing countries derive, from their
counterparts in the West, the emerging areas for research, the trends
and fashions and the stream of inspiration. They turn to these
counterparts for the criteria of excellence, and for assessment,
evaluation and recognition. In countries where the market plays a
dominant role, technology is like a commodity catering to the demands of
those who can purchase it, and ignoring those who cannot afford it. In
this stifling context, the challenge arises of
re-vitalizing science and re-orienting technology in developing
countries and making them development-oriented. The existence of
the poverty-stricken masses without adequate purchasing power,
firstly, distinguishes the commercialization process in developing
countries from that in the industrialized countries, and secondly,
implies that the market alone cannot be relied
This paper describes the efforts of the Indian Institute of Science
with its programme for the application of science and technology to
rural areas known by its acronym ASTRA. It indicates some directions
along which the model should be updated, taking into account the
emphasis on sustainable development.
It also covers the failure modes in the generation,
commercialisation and dissemination of rural technologies.
A short note listing 28 lessons from the ASTRA experience.
A few examples: Rural people may be poor and illiterate; but they
are not irrational; We must first be students; if we want to be
successful teachers; Women are often the best agents of disseminating
the technologies for rural development.
To Join A Discussion On Self-Reliance, Energy for Sustainable
Development ! Volume VI No. 2 ! June 2002
Invitation to join a debate on self-reliance, published in ESD,
June 2002. Also has the 1984 Sao Paulo Declaration on self-reliant
energy analysis and planning.
Overview Of R & D In India,
Historical overview, problems and suggestions.
Aspects of R&D Management, March 1988
Strategic aspects of R&D management, March 1988. Corporate
planning, R&D as business, R&D strategy, etc.
Technology and science will realise their historical missions, only
if they strike roots in the societies, which support them. Introduces
the concept of appropriate technology.
technological change, profits and R&D, role of Government and social
In India, March
A historical overview, concluding that the hope lies in a commitment to the local enviro
Under The Impact of Technology Imports, February 1988 and Some historical features of science &
technology in India, March 1988.
part looks at import & self reliance; the second part captures the
dynamics of science & technology in India.
Technology, Society and Innovation, January 1988.
An overview of Science and Technology and their inter-relationship
and Society In Stratified Developing Countries, The
University of Pennsylvania's January 1988.
Analysis of technology development in a developing country and its
focus, orientation , benefits to the poor.
Way Forward For Astra, Keynote Address, National Workshop on Rural
Technology, ASTRA, IISc ASTRA -- past, present and future. Keynote Address, National
Workshop on Rural Technology, ASTRA,
A 26-slide presentation, giving the three phases and way forward
for ASTRA. Looks from the angles of relevance, excellence, governance
and financial viability.
A Radical Idea Becomes A New Orthodoxy, American Scientist, January-February 1988
How a radical idea becomes a new orthodoxy; Based on Marginalia --
Anatomy of the Extinction Debate, Keith Stewart Thomson, American
Scientist, January-February 1988. A short note describing the nine
stages in the process.
and Violence, Text of the Seventh Saadath Hassan Manto Lecture under the auspices
of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi, delivered at
the Indian International Centre on June 15, 2000.
Amulya starts from his reflections after visiting Auschwitz, goes
on to Hiroshima, and then to India's nuclear tests, which he feels has
exposed the internal condition of Indian science. He writes: Scientists
escape responsibility for the mis-direction of science by the clever
excuse of the amorality and neutrality of science. Examples of this are
the statements made by Abdul Kalam that “he is only an engineer” and
that his missiles “can also be used for delivering flowers”.
Introduction to Visthar Lecture by Arundhati Roy on "The Human
and Ecological Costs of Big Dams" on 1 July 1999 at Bishop Cotton's
Girls School. Amulya talks of the issue (which involves conflict between
the establishment and people) and the speaker, whom he admires (Suffice
it for me to say that while I was reading “God of Small Things,” I
would keep exclaiming to my wife "Sheer Poetry!", a very
precious expression of mine that I reserve only for elegant cover drives
and sweetly-timed hook shots in cricket).