Prof. Amulya Kumar N Reddy


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Energy - Energy Paradigm

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A Generic Southern Perspective on Renewable Energy

A generic southern perspective on renewable energy; An expanded version of the lecture on May 29, 2000, to the short-term course on “Renewable Energies for Rural Areas”, ASTRA (Center for the Application of Science and Technology to Rural Areas), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Raises the debate: should the goal of an alternative energy paradigm be sustainable development or renewable energy?  Here the position is taken that the goal should be sustainable development with renewable energy being an instrument, i.e., not a 'fundamentalist' push for  renewable energy.  

Development, Energy And Environment:  Alternative Paradigm 

Energy for Women & Women for Energy, (Engendering Energy and Empowering Women), Srilatha Batliwala  and Amulya. Paper prepared for presentation at the Brainstorming Meeting of ENERGIA: Women and Energy Network on June 4-5, 1996, at the University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

In the past few years, there has been a shift from the supply side to the demand side paradigm in energy studies. But little attention is being paid to the gender distribution of energy consumption.  This paper addresses this issue with the experience gathered by ASTRA in rural  Karnataka.

Energy Efficiency from the Perspective of Developing Countries, J. Goldemberg, T.B. Johansson, Amulya & R.H. Williams.

Energy was one of the areas of intensive debate at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Notwithstanding the fact that the need for energy efficiency is widely accepted today, there is still need for an integrated view of the concept and role of energy efficiency revealing its structure and inter-connections.

Poverty-Oriented Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development, Paper presented to the International Workshop on Environment and Poverty, July 22-24, 1993, Dhaka (Bangladesh) organized by the Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies for the Global Forum on Environment and Poverty.

In a world stratified into rich and poor countries, the bulk of the degradation of the global atmosphere has originated primarily from the rich industrialized countries. But the contribution from the poor developing countries is increasingly rapidly. This paper looks at the energy crisis in developing countries and suggests a DEFENDUS based approach. It also includes a section on reducing oil imports.


Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development in India, Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development in India; Paper for presentation at the Conference on Global Collaboration on Sustainable Energy Development, Copenhagen, April 25-28, 1991.

A new paradigm for energy planning becomes necessary because the conventional paradigm is in trouble.  This must be shaped by the goal of ”sustainable development.” The focus on development means an emphasis on providing energy services required for the satisfaction of basic needs. The stress on energy services, rather than “energy consumption ”per se, means an emphasis on the end-uses of energy and, therefore, on the end-use devices that convert the final energy delivered to consumers into the required energy services. Hence, energy planning must be oriented to end-use. A paradigm is required that is focused on development, which is directed and oriented to end-uses. We shall refer to this paradigm by the acronym DEFENDUS.

The Indian Perspective: Appropriate Energy Technologies, Paper for presentation at the AAAS Symposium on Energy Technologies for Developing Nations at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Washington, D.C., February 16, 1991. 

Outlines the problems with the GROSSCON paradigm of energy planning, and explains the DEFENDUS approach. Also covers  strategies to reduce India's dependence on oil imports.

Energy, Environment and Development, Energy, environment and  development; Paper presented at the Eleventh Oxford Energy Seminar, at St. Catherine's College, on 13 September, 1989.

About the conventional energy paradigm and introduction to, the new paradigm.

The Debt-Energy Nexus: A Case Study of India, C. Rammanohar Reddy, Antonette and Amulya, EPW, July 4, 1992.

This study on India attempts to unravel the energy-debt nexus by linking India's energy imports to the growth of its external debt.  The intention is to bring out, firstly, the extent to which India's debt problem could have been avoided with a different strategy of energy use in the 1980s and, secondly, what changes in energy consumption are needed now to prevent a further build-up of debt.

Energy for the New Millennium, Josẻ Goldemberg (University of Sao Paolo), Thomas B. Johansson (United Nations Development Programme), Amulya K.N. Reddy (International Energy Initiative), and Robert H. Williams (Princeton University):

Energy For The New Millennium: About the approach by the four collaborators (gang of four) on the energy plan for the 21st century. Paper reflects the shared vision of energy as an instrument of global and national development and of technology as a crucial mechanism for making this possible.


Barriers to Improvements in Energy Efficiency, Paper presented at the Second International Workshop on Energy and Global Climate Change, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (California) USA, October 4-6, 1990, and revised later in the light of discussions at the workshop and comments by colleagues.              

The implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involves actors operating at various levels.  This paper discusses the barriers to this process by these actors, explores their origin and suggests measures that, by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. 

Vertically Integrated Electricity System, Part-I, Part-II, Integrated energy planning -- the DEFENDUS methodology; Amulya, Antonette, P. Balachandra & Gladys D. Sumithra.

Two-part article appeared in ESD, Volume II, in September and November 1995. Long paper explains energy planning, existing models and introduces DEFENDUS. Gives examples for the Karnataka power sector, petroleum products - all India and biomass for Karnataka.

Energy as an Obstacle to the Improvement of Living Standards, Srilatha Batliwala and AmulyaReddy

Energy as an obstacle to the improvement of living standards; Srilatha Batliwala and Amulya. Poverty and scarcity of energy services go hand in hand, and exist in a synergistic relationship.  If poverty reduction and improved living standards are to be achieved, energy services must be dramatically augmented to improve the level of the satisfaction of basic human needs.

Energy For Sustainable Development In The Third World,

Energy for sustainable development in the Third World. The conventional GROSSCON (Growth-Oriented Supply-Sided CONsumption-directed) paradigm is presented and the alternative DEFENDUS paradigm is suggested. The Karnataka DEFENDUS case study and the issues involved in shifting the paradigm are given. 

No title”,  Solar Water Heaters, 1999.

A detailed report on SWH, the design and implementation issues. Points out that SWH would produce many winners - power producers, consumers, SWH manufacturers and society.



Popular Articles 

The New Paradigm for Energy

The new paradigm for energy. Short article based on Amulya's acceptance speech (on behalf of Goldemberg, Johansson, Reddy and Williams) at the ceremony for the Award of the Volvo Environment Prize for 2000 at Gothenburg, Sweden, on 17 October 2000.

From Failure To Vision -- Energy for The New Millennium, Talk on the occasion of the award of the Volvo Environment Prize 2000, Gothenberg, 17 October 2000.

Brings out many issues like the crux of the global energy-induced environmental problem is the United States; energy analysis is dominated overwhelmingly by men and Northern countries; far less work is done on bio-mass compared to photo-voltaics. Suggests an approach for the 21st century, which could give energy a human face.


Energy Technologies, Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Presentation based on “Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges” for the 3rd Pugwash Workshop on Implementing the FCCC: “Challenges to Technology”, Gentofte, Denmark, 26-28 July 1998.

Notes that climate change is a pre-occupation of the industrialized countries, while sustainable development is a priority of the developing countries.  Here, the discussion will be based on sustainable development as the goal, which implies several criteria including climate.  In particular, sustainable development implies economic efficiency, equity/access (particularly for the poor, women and rural areas), empowerment / self-reliance, environmental soundness and peace.

Integrating Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development, Presentation based on “Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges” for Expert Meeting on Renewable Energy, Vienna, 15-17 June 1998.

Renewable Energy must find a place in national energy policies in such a way that it is compatible with the goal of  sustainable development. This paper is devoted to locating the sub-set of Renewable Energy in the set of national energy policies. 

Integrated Resource Planning (Irp), Amulya and Gladys Sumithra.

Based on presentations made at Tsinghua University, at Beijing, China, on May 8-16, 1995, and Privatisation and Regulation in the Power Sector organized by the International Energy Initiative at Hotel Imperial, Singapore, on June 21-23, 1995.

Energy Consumption and Population, Srilatha Batliwala  and Amulya; Paper prepared for the POPULATION SUMMIT OF THE WORLD'S SCIENTIFIC ACADEMIES, New Delhi, October 24-27, 1993.

The conventional approach to the energy-population nexus is that population levels determine energy demand. This paper points out that energy consumption patterns influence the rate of population growth through their effect on the desired number of births in a family and the relative benefits of fertility.

Energy For A Sustainable World,

Energy for a sustainable world; 1990. Short article explaining the conventional energy paradigm, its limitations and introducing the DEFENDUS paradigm

A Programme for the Replacement of Incandescent Bulbs with Compact Fluorescent Lamps in the Domestic Electricity Connections of Karnataka          

Short note in the context of a plan for  replacement of incandescent bulbs (IB) with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in Karnataka. Two joint projects between utilities, consumers, manufacturers and funding agency for this type of efficiency improvement - in Mexico and Poland - are described.


Replacement of IB With CFL, 

A programme for the replacement of incandescent bulbs (IB) with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in the domestic electricity connections of Karnataka - Annexure: Some recent programmes ; Two programs - in Mexico and  Poland, advanced by the Global Environmental Facility programme of the World Bank are described.  

Energy Efficiency and Inflation,

Energy efficiency and inflation: A one-page note.

Energy as an Instrument of Poverty Alleviation, Letter to Khalid Shams (Grameen group) after Amulya's visit in Feb 1997.

A short letter asking that the emphasis must be on energy services as an instrument of poverty alleviation;  not merely energy consumption (or supply) as an end in itself.  Therefore, the requirement is energy services to improve the life of the rural poor.

Integrated Electricity Planning: Some Personal Reflections, Presented by Amulya during the one-day seminar organized as part of his 75th birthday, IISc, Bangalore, 2005.


Large-Scale Dissemination of Solar Water Heaters in Karnataka, the IEI Workshop Bangalore,

Large-scale dissemination of solar water heaters in Karnataka: recommendations from the IEI Workshop, Bangalore, 26 August 1999: a 10-slide presentation. Importance of solar water heaters (SWH); need for involvement of all stakeholders; and measures required.

A New Way for Energy –- Efficiency Improvements, Renewable Energy and “Cleaner” Centralized Energy,  Presentation to the 21st Century Dialogues, 16-19 September 1998, UNESCO, Paris. 

Outlines the energy crisis and the solution -- emerging new energy paradigm, which supports sustainable development, which in turn ensures  economic efficiency,  equity/access, empowerment/self-reliance, environmental soundness and peace.

Solar Energy -- The Global Alternative, Presentation to the Fourth Netherlands Solar Energy Conference, April 1-2, 1993, Veldhoven (near Eindhoven), Netherlands.


To The Rockefeller Foundation Trustees Meeting, Presentation to the Rockefeller Foundation trustees meeting; September 14, 1992.

Covers IEI, energy for developing countries, Karnataka scenario and plans for energy efficiency measures.

Can the Unaided Market Ensure Public Benefits?

A presentation on the power, limitation and the need to regulate electricity markets.

Incorporation of Efficiency Improvements in the Estimates of Future Energy Demand 

Incorporation of efficiency improvements in the estimates of future energy demand. A 6-slide presentation with equations for incorporating energy efficiency.

Energy Planning Models

Energy planning models: a 41-slide presentation. On estimation of demand, conventional and new approach, incorporating energy efficiency measures, DEFENDUS and other models.

Krishna Bharadwaj Memorial Lecture , KRISHNA BHARADWAJ MEMORIAL LECTURE 

Energy crises, conventional paradigm and the new paradigm of planning. Krishna Bharadwaj memorial lecture: a 69-slide presentation.

Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges  

Energy after Rio: prospects and challenges. A 14-slide IEI presentation. Energy and social  issues like environment, economy and security in the context of sustainable development.

Large-Scale Dissemination of SWHs  

Implementation package for large-scale dissemination of solar water heaters (SWHs) A.R. Shivakumar, Sudhir Chella Rajan & Amulya. A 41-slide IEI presentation. On SWHs, different views on SWH, economics and dissemination. 

From Crisis to Opportunity through a New Energy  Paradigm

From crisis to opportunity through a new energy paradigm. A 37-slide IEI presentation. The crisis in the sector - capital, performance, equity and environmental. The conventional energy paradigm and the new DEFENDUS paradigm.


New Way For Energy,

A new way for energy. A 39-slide IEI presentation. Crisis, social issues and the new paradigm for sudevelopment.

Energy And Poverty Alleviation, April 1997

Energy and poverty alleviation. An 83-slide IEI presentation.  Addresses the goal and strategy for rural energy systems.

Energy and Poverty Alleviation,

A 41-slide IEI presentation. Addresses the goal and strategy for rural energy systems.

Energy Today: Prospect and Challenges, Sri Lanka Energy Forum Presentation

Energy today: prospects and challenges. A 12-slide IEI presentation on major issues related to energy and sustainable development.

Energy for Women & Women for Energy, Energia Presentation June,4-5,1996

Energy for women & women for energy. A 28-slide presentation. Srilatha Batliwala and Amulya.

International Energy Initiative -A Brief Report,

International Energy Initiative- A brief report; A 28-slide presentation made to DGIS covering objective, activities and plans of IEI.

International Energy Initiative,  

A 13-slide presentation on objective, activities and plans of IEI.


Approaching The 21st Century: Some Personal Reflections on Energy Systems, Approaching the 21st century: Some personal reflections on energy systems; Keynote address to the CEES-IEI Workshop on Catalysing South-North and South-South Collaborations on Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development, Princeton University, Princeton, 3-5 December 1998.

After a review of his experiences, Amulya concludes, “If the 20th century was the century of economic growth, the challenge is to make the 21st century the century of sustainable development (or sudevelopment)'.

Comments on DP Sengupta's Paper,

Comments on DP Sengupta's paper on power planning. In a short piece, Amulya finds fault with the paper, saying that it is out-of-date; omits relevant recent references; wastes valuable journal space; shows sloppy editing; is replete with confusion, mistakes and methodological defects.



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