Prof. Amulya Kumar N Reddy
Energy - Energy Paradigm
A generic southern perspective on renewable energy; An expanded
version of the lecture on May 29, 2000, to the short-term course on
“Renewable Energies for Rural Areas”, ASTRA (Center for the
Application of Science and Technology to Rural Areas), Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore. Raises the debate: should the goal of an alternative
energy paradigm be sustainable development or renewable energy?
Here the position is taken that the goal should be sustainable
development with renewable energy being an instrument, i.e., not a
'fundamentalist' push for renewable
for Women & Women for Energy, (Engendering Energy and Empowering
Batliwala and Amulya. Paper
prepared for presentation at the Brainstorming Meeting of ENERGIA: Women
and Energy Network on June 4-5, 1996, at the University of Twente,
Enschede, The Netherlands.
In the past few years, there has been a shift from the supply side
to the demand side paradigm in energy studies. But little attention is
being paid to the gender distribution of energy consumption.
This paper addresses this issue with the experience gathered by
ASTRA in rural Karnataka.
Efficiency from the Perspective of Developing Countries, J. Goldemberg, T.B.
Johansson, Amulya & R.H. Williams.
Energy was one of the areas of intensive debate at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de
Janeiro in June 1992. Notwithstanding the fact that the need for energy
efficiency is widely accepted today, there is still need for an integrated
view of the concept and role of energy efficiency revealing its structure
Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development, Paper presented to the
International Workshop on Environment and Poverty, July 22-24, 1993, Dhaka
(Bangladesh) organized by the Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies for
the Global Forum on Environment and Poverty.
In a world stratified into rich and poor countries, the bulk of the
degradation of the global atmosphere has originated primarily from the
rich industrialized countries. But the contribution from the poor
developing countries is increasingly rapidly. This paper looks at the
energy crisis in developing countries and suggests a DEFENDUS based
approach. It also includes a section on reducing oil imports.
Strategies for Sustainable Development in India, Energy
Strategies for Sustainable Development in India; Paper for presentation at
the Conference on Global Collaboration on Sustainable Energy Development,
Copenhagen, April 25-28, 1991.
A new paradigm for energy planning becomes necessary because the
conventional paradigm is in trouble. This must be shaped by the goal of ”sustainable
development.” The focus on development means an emphasis on providing
energy services required for the satisfaction of basic needs. The stress
on energy services, rather than “energy consumption ”per se, means an
emphasis on the end-uses of energy and, therefore, on the end-use devices
that convert the final energy delivered to consumers into the required
energy services. Hence, energy planning must be oriented to end-use. A
paradigm is required that is focused on development, which is directed and
oriented to end-uses. We shall refer to this paradigm by the acronym
Indian Perspective: Appropriate Energy Technologies, Paper for presentation at the AAAS
Symposium on Energy Technologies for Developing Nations at the 1991 Annual
Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences,
Washington, D.C., February 16, 1991.
the problems with the GROSSCON paradigm of energy planning, and explains
the DEFENDUS approach. Also covers strategies
to reduce India's dependence on oil imports.
Environment and Development, Energy, environment and
development; Paper presented at the Eleventh Oxford Energy Seminar,
at St. Catherine's College, on 13 September, 1989.
the conventional energy paradigm and introduction to, the new paradigm.
Debt-Energy Nexus: A Case Study of India, C. Rammanohar Reddy, Antonette and Amulya, EPW, July 4, 1992.
This study on India attempts to unravel the energy-debt nexus by
linking India's energy imports to the growth of its external debt.
The intention is to bring out, firstly, the extent to which India's
debt problem could have been avoided with a different strategy of energy
use in the 1980s and, secondly, what changes in energy consumption are
needed now to prevent a further build-up of debt.
for the New Millennium, Josẻ Goldemberg (University of Sao
Paolo), Thomas B. Johansson (United Nations Development Programme), Amulya
K.N. Reddy (International Energy Initiative), and Robert H. Williams
Energy For The New Millennium: About the approach by the four
collaborators (gang of four) on the energy plan for the 21st century.
Paper reflects the shared vision of energy as an instrument of global and
national development and of technology as a crucial mechanism for making
to Improvements in Energy Efficiency, Paper presented at the Second International Workshop on Energy and
Global Climate Change, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (California)
USA, October 4-6, 1990, and revised later in the light of discussions at
the workshop and comments by colleagues.
The implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involves
actors operating at various levels. This
paper discusses the barriers to this process by these actors, explores
their origin and suggests measures that, by themselves or in combination
with other measures, will overcome these barriers.
Two-part article appeared in ESD, Volume II, in September and
November 1995. Long paper explains energy planning, existing models and
introduces DEFENDUS. Gives examples for the Karnataka power sector,
petroleum products - all India and biomass for Karnataka.
as an Obstacle to the Improvement of Living Standards, Srilatha
Batliwala and AmulyaReddy
as an obstacle to the improvement of living standards; Srilatha Batliwala
and Amulya. Poverty and scarcity of energy services go hand in hand, and
exist in a synergistic relationship.
If poverty reduction and improved living standards are to be
achieved, energy services must be dramatically augmented to improve the
level of the satisfaction of basic human needs.
Energy for sustainable development in the Third World. The conventional GROSSCON (Growth-Oriented Supply-Sided CONsumption-directed) paradigm is presented and the alternative DEFENDUS paradigm is suggested. The Karnataka DEFENDUS case study and the issues involved in shifting the paradigm are given.
title”, Solar Water Heaters, 1999.
detailed report on SWH, the design and implementation issues. Points out
that SWH would produce many winners - power producers, consumers, SWH
manufacturers and society.
The new paradigm for energy. Short article based on Amulya's
acceptance speech (on behalf of Goldemberg, Johansson, Reddy and Williams)
at the ceremony for the Award of the Volvo Environment Prize for 2000 at
Gothenburg, Sweden, on 17 October 2000.
Failure To Vision -- Energy for The New Millennium, Talk on the occasion of the award of the
Volvo Environment Prize 2000, Gothenberg, 17 October 2000.
Brings out many issues like the crux of the global energy-induced environmental problem is the United States; energy analysis is dominated overwhelmingly by men and Northern countries; far less work is done on bio-mass compared to photo-voltaics. Suggests an approach for the 21st century, which could give energy a human face.
Technologies, Climate Change and Sustainable Development,
Presentation based on “Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges”
for the 3rd Pugwash Workshop on Implementing the FCCC: “Challenges to
Technology”, Gentofte, Denmark, 26-28 July 1998.
Notes that climate change is a pre-occupation of the industrialized
countries, while sustainable development is a priority of the developing
countries. Here, the
discussion will be based on sustainable development as the goal, which
implies several criteria including climate.
In particular, sustainable development implies economic efficiency,
equity/access (particularly for the poor, women and rural areas),
empowerment / self-reliance, environmental soundness and peace.
Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development, Presentation
based on “Energy after Rio: Prospects and Challenges” for Expert
Meeting on Renewable Energy, Vienna, 15-17 June 1998.
Renewable Energy must find a place in national energy policies in
such a way that it is compatible with the goal of sustainable development. This paper is devoted to locating the
sub-set of Renewable Energy in the set of national energy policies.
Resource Planning (Irp), Amulya and Gladys Sumithra.
Based on presentations made at Tsinghua University, at Beijing,
China, on May 8-16, 1995, and Privatisation and Regulation in the Power
Sector organized by the International Energy Initiative at Hotel Imperial,
Singapore, on June 21-23, 1995.
Consumption and Population, Srilatha Batliwala and Amulya; Paper prepared for the POPULATION SUMMIT OF THE
WORLD'S SCIENTIFIC ACADEMIES, New Delhi, October 24-27, 1993.
conventional approach to the energy-population nexus is that population
levels determine energy demand. This paper points out that energy
consumption patterns influence the rate of population growth through their
effect on the desired number of births in a family and the relative
benefits of fertility.
for a sustainable world; 1990. Short article explaining the conventional
energy paradigm, its limitations and introducing the DEFENDUS paradigm
Short note in the context of a plan for replacement of incandescent bulbs (IB) with compact
fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in Karnataka. Two joint projects between
utilities, consumers, manufacturers and funding agency for this type of
efficiency improvement - in Mexico and Poland - are described.
A programme for the replacement of incandescent bulbs (IB) with
compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in the domestic electricity connections
of Karnataka - Annexure: Some recent programmes ; Two programs - in Mexico
and Poland, advanced by the
Global Environmental Facility programme of the World Bank are described.
Energy efficiency and inflation: A one-page note.
as an Instrument of Poverty Alleviation, Letter to Khalid
Shams (Grameen group) after Amulya's visit in Feb 1997.
A short letter asking that the emphasis must be on energy services
as an instrument of poverty alleviation;
not merely energy consumption (or supply) as an end in itself.
Therefore, the requirement is energy services to improve the life
of the rural poor.
Personal Reflections, Presented by Amulya during the one-day seminar
organized as part of his 75th birthday, IISc, Bangalore, 2005.
Dissemination of Solar Water Heaters in Karnataka, the
IEI Workshop Bangalore,
Large-scale dissemination of solar water heaters in Karnataka:
recommendations from the IEI Workshop, Bangalore, 26 August 1999: a
10-slide presentation. Importance of solar water heaters (SWH); need for
involvement of all stakeholders; and measures required.
New Way for Energy –- Efficiency Improvements, Renewable Energy and
“Cleaner” Centralized Energy, Presentation to the 21st Century Dialogues, 16-19 September
1998, UNESCO, Paris.
Outlines the energy crisis and the solution -- emerging new energy
paradigm, which supports sustainable development, which in turn ensures
economic efficiency, equity/access,
empowerment/self-reliance, environmental soundness and peace.
Energy -- The Global Alternative, Presentation to the Fourth Netherlands
Solar Energy Conference, April 1-2, 1993, Veldhoven (near Eindhoven),
The Rockefeller Foundation Trustees Meeting, Presentation
to the Rockefeller Foundation trustees meeting; September 14, 1992.
Covers IEI, energy for developing countries, Karnataka scenario and
plans for energy efficiency measures.
A presentation on the power, limitation and the need to regulate
Incorporation of efficiency improvements in the estimates of future
energy demand. A 6-slide presentation with equations for incorporating
Energy planning models: a 41-slide presentation. On estimation of
demand, conventional and new approach, incorporating energy efficiency
measures, DEFENDUS and other models.
Bharadwaj Memorial Lecture , KRISHNA BHARADWAJ MEMORIAL LECTURE
Energy crises, conventional paradigm and the new paradigm of
planning. Krishna Bharadwaj memorial lecture: a 69-slide presentation.
Energy after Rio: prospects and challenges. A 14-slide IEI
presentation. Energy and social issues
like environment, economy and security in the context of sustainable
Implementation package for large-scale dissemination of solar water
heaters (SWHs) A.R. Shivakumar, Sudhir Chella Rajan & Amulya. A
41-slide IEI presentation. On SWHs, different views on SWH, economics and
From crisis to opportunity through a new energy paradigm. A
37-slide IEI presentation. The crisis in the sector - capital,
performance, equity and environmental. The conventional energy paradigm
and the new DEFENDUS paradigm.
A new way for energy. A 39-slide IEI presentation. Crisis, social issues and the new paradigm for sudevelopment.
And Poverty Alleviation, April 1997
Energy and poverty alleviation. An 83-slide IEI presentation.
Addresses the goal and strategy for rural energy systems.
A 41-slide IEI presentation. Addresses the goal and strategy for
rural energy systems.
Today: Prospect and Challenges, Sri Lanka Energy Forum
Energy today: prospects and challenges. A 12-slide IEI presentation
on major issues related to energy and sustainable development.
for Women & Women for Energy, Energia
Energy for women & women for energy. A 28-slide presentation.
Srilatha Batliwala and Amulya.
Energy Initiative- A brief report; A 28-slide presentation made to DGIS
covering objective, activities and plans of IEI.
13-slide presentation on objective, activities and plans of IEI.
The 21st Century: Some Personal Reflections on Energy Systems, Approaching
the 21st century: Some personal reflections on energy systems; Keynote
address to the CEES-IEI Workshop on Catalysing South-North and South-South
Collaborations on Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development, Princeton
University, Princeton, 3-5 December 1998.
After a review of his experiences, Amulya concludes, “If the 20th
century was the century of economic growth, the challenge is to make the
21st century the century of sustainable development (or sudevelopment)'.
Comments on DP Sengupta's paper on power planning. In a short
piece, Amulya finds fault with the paper, saying that it is out-of-date;
omits relevant recent references; wastes valuable journal space; shows
sloppy editing; is replete with confusion, mistakes and methodological